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Dr. Regehr is a Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School and interested in synapses, short term plasticity, and the cerebellum. The cerebellar cortex transforms mossy fiber inputs into Purkinje cell outputs. A basic framework was developed 50 years ago for how the relatively small number of neuron types performs and refines these transformations. Recent advances will be described that have provided new insights into the circuit elements that make up the cerebellar cortex. RNAseq studies have identified different types and subtypes of neurons. Electrophysiological characterization of these neuron types and subtypes have revealed distinctive firing properties and synaptic inputs and outputs. Serial electron microscopy reconstructions of the circuitry have clarified the connections between different circuit elements. Granule cells, molecular layer interneurons, candelabrum cells, unipolar brush cells, and Purkinje cells will be discussed.